A werewolf, also known as a lycanthrope ("wolf-man"), is a mythological or folkloric human with the ability to shape shift into a wolf or an therianthropic hybrid wolf-like creature, either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (e.g. via a bite or scratch from another werewolf). This transformation is often associated with the appearance of the full moon. Early sources for belief in lycanthropy are Petronius and Gervase of Tilbury.
In addition to the natural characteristics inherent to both wolves and humans, werewolves are often attributed strength and speed far beyond those of wolves or men. The werewolf is generally held as a European character, although its lore spread through the world in later times. Shape-shifters similar to werewolves are common in tales from all over the world.
Appearance & Identification
Werewolves were said in European folklore to bear tell-tale physical traits even in their human form. These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride. The appearance of a werewolf in its animal form varies from culture to culture, though it is most commonly portrayed as being indistinguishable from ordinary wolves save for the fact that it has no tail (a trait thought characteristic of witches in animal form), is often larger, and retains human eyes and voice.
One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was to cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound. After returning to their human forms, werewolves are usually documented as becoming weak, debilitated and undergoing painful nervous depression.
One universally reviled trait in medieval Europe was the werewolf's habit of devouring recently buried corpses, a trait that is documented extensively, particularly in the Annales Medico-psychologiques in the 19th century.
Unique Local Legends
- Fennoscandian werewolves were usually old women who possessed poison-coated claws and had the ability to paralyse cattle and children with their gaze.
- Serbian vulkodlaks traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, when they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees. They would then get a hold of another vulkodlak's skin and burn it, releasing from its curse the vulkodlak from whom the skin came.
- The Haitian jé-rouges typically try to trick mothers into giving away their children voluntarily by waking them at night and asking their permission to take their child, to which the disoriented mother may either reply yes or no.
- A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognized by bristles under the tongue.
- According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail.
Curse or Power?
Various methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolf skin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin (which also is frequently described). In other cases, the body is rubbed with a magic salve. Drinking rainwater out of the footprint of the animal in question or from certain enchanted streams were also considered effectual modes of accomplishing metamorphosis. The 16th century Swedish writer Olaus Magnus says that the Livonian werewolves were initiated by draining a cup of specially prepared beer and repeating a set formula. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia.
In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night with the full moon shining directly on his face.
Becoming a werewolf simply by being bitten or scratched by another werewolf as a form of contagion is common in modern horror fiction, but this kind of transmission is rare in legend, unlike the case in vampirism.
Even if the denotation of lycanthropy is limited to the wolf-metamorphosis of living human beings, the beliefs classed together under this head are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied. The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the real man to all appearance unchanged; may be his soul, which goes forth seeking whom it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a familiar spirit, whose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it is believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause a corresponding injury to the human being.
Werewolves and Witchcraft
In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. "The werewolves", writes Richard Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 1628), are certain sorcerers, who have anointed their bodies with an ointment which they make by the instinct of the devil, and putting on a certain enchanted girdle, does not only unto the view of others seem as wolves, but to their own thinking have both the shape and nature of wolves, so long as they wear the said girdle. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures.
Such were the views about lycanthropy current throughout the continent of Europe when Verstegan wrote.
The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosis, or of sending out a familiar, real or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magician, male and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature. In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy. Nevertheless it will be well to touch on both these beliefs here.
The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints allegedly cursing those who invoked their wrath with werewolfism. Such is the case of Lycaon, who was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner. Those who were excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church were also said to become werewolves.
The power of transforming others into wild beasts was attributed not only to malignant sorcerers, but to Christian saints as well. Omnes angeli, boni et Mali, ex virtute naturali habent potestatem transmutandi corpora nostra ("All angels, good and bad have the power of transmutating our bodies") was the dictum of St. Thomas Aquinas. St. Patrick was said to have transformed the Welsh king Vereticus into a wolf; Natalis supposedly cursed an illustrious Irish family whose members were each doomed to be a wolf for seven years. In other tales the divine agency is even more direct, while in Russia, again, men supposedly became werewolves when incurring the wrath of the Devil.
A notable exception to the association of Lycanthropy and the Devil, comes from a rare and lesser known account of an 80-year-old man named Thiess. In 1692, in Jurgenburg, Livonia, Thiess testified under oath that he and other werewolves were the Hounds of God. He claimed they were warriors who went down into hell to do battle with witches and demons. Their efforts ensured that the Devil and his minions did not carry off the grain from local failed crops down to hell. Thiess was steadfast in his assertions, claiming that werewolves in Germany and Russia also did battle with the devil's minions in their own versions of hell, and insisted that when werewolves died, their souls were welcomed into heaven as reward for their service. Thiess was ultimately sentenced to ten lashes for Idolatry and superstitious belief.
A distinction is often made between voluntary and involuntary werewolves. The former are generally thought to have made a pact, usually with the Devil, and morph into werewolves at night to indulge in nefarious acts. Involuntary werewolves, on the other hand, are werewolves by an accident of birth or health. In some cultures, individuals born during a new moon or suffering from epilepsy were considered likely to be werewolves.
Various methods have existed for removing the werewolf form. In antiquity, the Ancient Greeks and Romans believed in the power of exhaustion in curing people of lycanthropy. The victim would be subjected to long periods of physical activity in the hope of being purged of the malady. This practice stemmed from the fact that many alleged werewolves would be left feeling weak and debilitated after committing depredations.
In medieval Europe, traditionally, there are three methods one can use to cure a victim of werewolfism; medicinally (usually via the use of wolfsbane), surgically or by exorcism. However, many of the cures advocated by medieval medical practitioners proved fatal to the patients. A Sicilian belief of Arabic origin holds that a werewolf can be cured of its ailment by striking it three times on the forehead or scalp with a knife. Another belief from the same culture involves the piercing of the werewolf's hands with nails. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that simply scolding a werewolf will cure it. Conversion to Christianity is also a common method of removing werewolfism in the medieval period. A devotion to St. Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes. Rolling in dew is also said to cure the ailment.
Werewolves are a frequent subject of modern fiction of the fantasy or horror genre. The ideas that werewolves are only vulnerable to silver bullets or other silver weapons, or that they can cause others to become werewolves by biting or wounding them, mainly derive from 20th-century works of fiction.
Below listed are pieces of literature that revolve around or contain a werewolf, even briefly.
- In 1857, Le Meneur de loups (The Wolf Leader), a fantasy novel written by Alexandre Dumas was published. It was translated to English in 1904 by Alfred Allinson.
- In 1933, The Werewolf of Paris, a horror novel written by Guy Endore was published.
- In 1948, Darker Than You Think, a science fantasy / horror novel written by Jack Williamson was published.
- In 1961, Three Hearts and Three Lions, a fantasy novel written by Poul Anderson was published.
- In 1972, Jag är en varulvsunge (I Am a Werewolf Cub), a children’s novel written by Gunnel Linde was published. It was translated to English by Joan Tate.
- In 1977, The Howling, a horror novel written by Gary Brandner was first published. Its sequel, The Howling II (Alternate name: The Howling II: The Return) was released in 1979, along with the third and last sequel, The Howling III: Echoes (U.S. Title: The Howling III) which was published in 1985.
- In 1979, The Black Wolf written by Galad Elflandsson was published.
- In 1980, A Walk in Wolf Wood, a fantasy novel written by Mary Stewart was published.
- In 1983, Cycle of the Werewolf, a gothic horror novel written by Stephen King was published.
- In 1986, The Dark Cry of the Moon, a horror novel written by Charles L. Grant was published.
- In 1989, The Wolf's Hour, a horror novel written by Robert R. McCammon was published.
- In 1991, The Wild, a fantasy novel written by Whitley Strieber was published.
- In 1993, The Werewolf of Fever Swamp, the fourteenth book of the Goosebumps series written by R. L. Stine was published.
- In 1996, The Lunatic Cafe, the fourth book in the erotic / mystery / horror series Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter, written by Laurell K. Hamilton was published. The Killing Dance, the sixth, was published in 1997.
- In 1997, Blood and Chocolate, a paranormal romance novel written by Annette Curtis Klause was published.
- In 1999, The Fifth Elephant, the twenty-fourth book of the Discworld series, written by Terry Pratchett was published.
- Also in 1999, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the third book of the Harry Potter series and written by J. K. Rowling was published.
- In 2000, the Wyndham Werewolves series, written by MaryJanice Davidson started with short stories and then its first novel, Derik’s Bane was published in 2005.
- In 2001, Bitten written by Kelley Armstrong was published.
- Also in 2001, Fool Moon, the second novel of The Dresden Files written by Jim Butcher was published. In the book, the last loup-garou rampage is reported as occurring in Gévaudan, France, in the 16th century, when 200 people were killed in one year. The loup-garou is a type of werewolf that goes on a killing spree during the full moon.
- In 2007, Sharp Teeth, a free-verse horror novel written by Toby Barlow was published.
- In 2009, Frostbitten, a horror novel written by David Wellington was published.
- Also in 2009, Skin Trade, the seventeenth book of Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter was published.
- In 2012, Dust of the Damned, a “weird” western written by Peter Brandvold was published.
- Also in 2012, The Wolf Gift, a gothic horror written by Anne Rice was published, and its sequel, The Wolves of Midwinter, was published in 2013.
- The Wolves of Mercy Falls series by Maggie Stiefvater features a pack of wolves that transform into humans during summer, because, instead of the moon, the cause of their transformation is the cold.
Films and TV shows
- In 1981, a British-American horror black comedy film, An American Werewolf in London was released, featuring David Kessler who was bitten by a rogue werewolf, thus giving him the curse.
- Also in 1981, an American horror film, The Howling, was released. It is based on the novel of the same name. It features Karen White, a television news anchor who is being stalked by Eddie Quist, a serial killer and a werewolf. After a traumatic event and shooting of Eddie, a therapist decides to send Karen and her husband to a country retreat, the “Colony”. Unknown to anyone, the place is full of werewolves, including Eddie Quist. By the end of the film, Karen herself shape-shifts to a live broadcast to prove the existence of werewolves.
- In 2000, a Canadian horror film, Ginger Snaps, was released. It features two sisters, Bridget and Ginger, who experiment with death experiments to find “the perfect death”. One night, a werewolf manages to bite Ginger, which gives her the curse. Over time, the beast inside gets stronger and more apparent, until she loses her will — thus the title, "Ginger Snaps".
- In 2004, the film Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban featured a werewolf — Professor Remus Lupin, who was a Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher. In the film, upon the moon’s shine he transformed into his werewolf form, unknowingly attacking the main trio. Sirius Black comes to save them, transforming into his Animagius form to do so.
- In episode six of the 2011 MTV drama Teen Wolf, the character Allison learns that her werewolf hunting family was responsible for slaughtering the Beast of Gévaudan while doing a research project for school.
- Zombies 2, a musical by Disney, features werewolves.
- Season 2, episode seventeen Heart, Supernatural
- Werewolves are depicted heavily in the Underworld franchise, often referred to as Lycans. They have been depicted as large, dark-furred humanoids with canine features.
- In 2008, an expansion for World of Warcraft was released: Wrath of the Lich King. In the expansion, werewolves or “worgen” were featured as enemies.
- In 2010, another expansion for World of Warcraft was released: Cataclysm. Worgen were now a playable race, with a starting zone and quest line. The player begins as a human in Gilneas, a Victorian-esque town, which was to be overrun by worgen as their curse got out. The player soon is inevitably transformed into the worgen form, and with the help of the night elves, is able to fully regain their humanity and switch between forms if they wish.
- In 2011, The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim features werewolves. The player may choose to become one after completing quests for the Companions, a warrior guild in Whiterun.
- In 2020, an online virtual game called Fer.al has a customisable avatar, with many forms to take, including werewolves, who were available for a limited time.
- In 2021, an action role-playing video game called Werewolf: The Apocalypse (Earthblood) was released, based in the world from the tabletop game, Werewolf: The Apocalypse.